Inv. n°: MMoCA492

Roman Bronze Calvary Helmet

Phrygian in style cavalry helmet terminating in the head of an eagle, decorated with an all-over scale pattern, a warrior, winged victories and a punched inscription reading 'PACCI'. This cavalry helmet is associated with two bronze horse harness distributors (inventory numer MMoCA492a), one of which carries the punched inscription 'T CANDIDI MAXIMI'. This might have belonged to a soldier who served in the cavalry unit (Turma) of Candidius Maximus.

h. 45 cm

2nd-3rd century AD



  • Ex Raymond Heck (1954 – 2006?) collection, Belgium, 1970s
  • Ex Gert Fennell collection
  • Ex Oliver Habel collection, Germany, 2005
  • With Numisart Gmbh, Munich, since 2008
  • Acquired at Numisart Gmbh, Munich, 19th March 2010


  • M. Merrony, Minerva: the International Review of Ancient Art & Archaeology, November/December 2010, vol. 21, p. 53, fig. 4
  • M. Junkelmann, "Roman Miltaria" in M. Merrony (ed.), Mougins Museum of Classical Art, France, 2011, pp. 256-257, fig. 57
  • Antike Welt, 1st August 2011, p. 4
  • T. Fischer, Die Armee der Caesaren: Archäologie und Geschichte, 2012, p. 211, no.307
  • M. Merrony, Musée d’Art Classique de Mougins. La Collection Famille Levett, France, 2012, pp. 13-72
  • Egypte Ancienne, May/July 2013, p. 70
  • France Today, November 2013, p. 13
  • Tendencias del Mercado del Arte, January-February 2014, p. 19
  • State, September-October 2014, p. 6-21
  • S. T. James, The Boston Helmet: a Preliminary Account of a Parthian/Roman-era Artefact at the Museum of Fine Arts, 2014, pp.101-102
  • T. Fischer, Journal of Military Equipment Studies Dedicated to the Study of the Weapons, Armour and Military Fittings of the Armies and Enemies of Rome and Byzantium, 2016, vol. 17, p.107, fig a. and b
  • M.C. Bishop, Minerva: the International Review of Ancient Art & Archaeology, May/June 2017, p.13, no. 12
  • M. Symonds, "Hadrian’s Cavalry – Telling the Stories of Rome’s Riders", Current Archaeology Magazine, August 2017, Issue 329, p. 51
  • Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums, "The Army" in Georgia Litherland, in Heritage (publication editor) (ed.), Hadrian‘s Cavalry, UK, 2017, pp. 10-11
  • J. Oorthuys, "Enjoy the Experience of a Museum with Difference! MACM", Ancient Warfare, Slovakia, June/July 2020, vol. XII, issue 6, p. 59
  • Andrei Negin, "The Old Zeichhaus Library", Roman decorated armour from the principal's periods, Russian Vityazi Foundation, Russia, 2020, p. 219
  • J. Osgood, "Enjoy the Experience of a Museum with Difference! MACM" in J. Oorthuys (ed.), Ancient History, Karwansaray Publishers, Rotterdam, Jun/Jul 2020, no. 28, p. 59
  • M. C. Bishop, Roman Mail and Scale Armour, UK, 2023, p. 35


  • Palm Beach Art fair, West Palm Beach, 2009 — 2009
  • Musée d'Art Classique de Mougins (MACM), Mougins, France, from June 2011
  • Roms vergessener Feldzug. Die Schlacht am Harzhorn, Braunschweiges Landesmuseum, Brunswick, Germany, 1st September 2013 — 19th January 2014
  • Hadrian’s Cavalry, Tullie House Museum, Carlisle, Hadrian’s Wall Country, UK, 8th April 2017 — 10th September 2017
  • Musée d'Art Classique de Mougins (MACM), Mougins, France, from June 2011
  • The J. Paul Getty Museum, Roman Sculpture Gallery, Getty Villa, California, USA, 2017 — 2019

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